Why Is Genetic Testing Controversial

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Further evidence supports the controversial claim that SARS-CoV-2 genes may be integrated into human DNA, after the challenge, the research team provides additional data to support its controversial hypothesis, but its relevance to human health is uncertain.

Laboratory studies on genetically engineered human cells have shown that SARS-CoV-2 (blue) RNA can be transformed into DNA in infected individuals and broken down into their chromosomes. CLAUS LUNAU / Source

Why Is Genetic Testing Controversial

Why Is Genetic Testing Controversial

Leading team of scientists has redoubled the controversial hypothesis that a wide range of corona virus gene fragments integrate into our chromosomes and remain long after infection. If they are right – pessimists have argued that their results are laboratory artifacts – this may explain the rare finding that people can recover from COVID-19 and return after SARS-CoV-2 months.

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Stem cell biologist Rudolph Janish and Richard Young, a leading genetic engineer at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, led the storm on Twitter in December 2020, with researchers insisting that virus integration was the first pre-printed idea on bioRxiv to recover victims from COVID-19. But critics have accused the messenger RNA (MRNA) -based Covit-19 vaccine of creating unfounded fears that it could somehow alter human DNA. (Jansik and Yang’s results are original and new, emphasizing that those vaccines do not in any way imply the integration of their sequences into our DNA.)

The researchers also presented a series of scientific critiques, some of which the panel addressed in an article published online today.

The virus that causes SARS-CoV-2, Covit-19, contains genes that make up RNA, and in rare cases, an enzyme in human cells could copy the virus strands into DNA and insert them into To, according to Janish, Young and colleagues. Success. Our chromosomes are encrypted with the enzyme, the reverse transcriptase, LINE-1, which make up 17 percent of the human genome and represent the artifacts of ancient infections by retroviruses. When human cells were infected with the corona virus with additional components called LINE-1, the researchers provided evidence in their early bookings from the test tube that DNA copies of the SARS-CoV-2 sequences were inserted into the cell chromosomes.

Many researchers who specialize in LINE-1 and other “retrotranspositions” thought that the data were too thin to support this claim. “If I had this data, I would not have sent it to any newspaper at that time,” said Cedric Fawcett of Cornell University, who studies endogenous retrovirus fragments in the human genome. He and others said they expect high quality work from Janish and Young Caliber scientists. In two subsequent studies, both of which were submitted to bioRxiv, the critics provided evidence that hypothetical human and viral DNA traces were generally created using the same technique used by the team to scan chromosomes. At the end of a report, human virus sequences were “a systematic product rather than the result of transcription, integration, and reverse expression.”

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In their new study, Janish, Young and colleagues acknowledge that the technique they use roughly creates human-viral illusions. “I think this is a perfect point,” Janish says. He says when they first submitted the article to a magazine they knew they needed strong data they wanted to include during the review process. But like many others, it urges magazine editors to post all COVID-19 results immediately on the pre-print server. “I should probably have told you to close it. I would not have put it on bioRxiv. This is a misjudgment,” says Janish.

In the study, the team presents evidence that artifacts alone cannot explain the detected amount of human-viral symmetric DNA. Scientists also show that parts of the LINE-1 element are located next to the integrated viral gene sequence, which further supports their hypothesis. They also co-authored with Steven Hughes, one of the main suspects in the National Cancer Institute, who proposed an experiment to determine whether the synergy was real or loud based on the orientation of the integrated virus sequences into the human sequence. Hughes, co-author of the new article, says the results support the main hypothesis. “This analysis is important,” he said.

“The integration data in cell culture are much more robust than those presented in the preprint, but they are not yet fully clear,” says Fesot, who now calls the Janish & Young hypothesis “acceptable.” (He points out that SARS-CoV-2 can stay in a person for months without integrating its genes.)

Why Is Genetic Testing Controversial

The real question is whether cell culture data are relevant to human health or diagnosis. “In the absence of evidence for patient integration, what I can derive most from this data is that SARS-CoV-2 RNA recurrence events can be detected in the affected cell lines where L1 is highly compressed,” says Fawcett. The clinical or biological significance of these observations in this case, if any, is pure speculation.

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Jaenish and Young report on the synthesis of SARS-CoV-2 in the tissues of living and autopsied Govt-19 patients. In particular, the researchers found high levels of RNA type that can only be produced by integrated viral DNA because the cell makes its own sequence of proteins. But Yang admits, “We do not yet have direct evidence of that.”

“Those who have to destroy the virus sometimes ask why polymerase chain reaction tests are positive,” said Harmeet Malik, an archaeologist at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center’s human genetics center. There are less reverse transcription machines, ”says Malik.

The conflict has certainly become more civil since December. Yang and Jinish both claim that their pre-printing has received harsher criticism than any other study in their industry because some researchers consider the false claims about the vaccine to be in the interest of vaccine skeptics. . “If the front axle had to be removed, that’s it! It’s irresponsible to even print it before the evidence is complete. Now some people are using it to create new suspicions. One.”

If there is one thing we have learned from the Govt-19 epidemic, we cannot wait for a response to the crisis. AAAS also works tirelessly to provide reliable, resource-based information on the latest scientific research and policy, along with comprehensive free epidemic coverage. Your tax deduction plays an important role in continuing this effort. A Chinese researcher, He Jiankoui, has announced the birth of the first child with DNA modified embryos. He said he used CRISPR to inactivate the twins’ gene CCR5 to protect their cells from HIV infection. His report has attracted widespread criticism from the scientific community over ethical and security concerns.

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Dr. Bruce Conklin is a professor and senior researcher at the Gladstone Institute who specializes in gene therapy editing. Barbara Koenig, PhD, RN, Bioethics Project Manager and Professor at the Institute for Health and Aging.

Genome scientist Bruce Conklin: Editing on a fertilized egg is done here, and this change will be passed on to children forever. In contrast, our lab studies physiological gene editing in adults, so we modify a specific tissue such as the retina so that the retina only changes and is not passed on to the next generation. Our focus is on treating incurable genetic diseases, but our treatments are not passed on to the next generation.

Barbara Koenig, Bioethicist: Germline editing is always the last resort because if you make a mistake it will be a mistake for all future generations. But this is not a very clear dividing line because physical corrections can have abnormal effects on the egg or sperm.

Why Is Genetic Testing Controversial

Konic: This is a big deal because it would be a productive intervention. There is an international understanding that interventions regarding human embryos performed up to pregnancy should be suspended. It clearly does not conform to those recommendations.

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There are other things in this situation – a scientist announces a scientific discovery in a promotional video while on leave from university. It’s like a Wild West scene.

Ganglin: The medical need for this particular edition is actually exaggerated. If he goes to the ethics committee he will not cross the first bar because he is not medically necessary. With

Furthermore, in terms of genetic disorders, most can be avoided with IVF, prior to implantation with genetic testing and genetic counseling.

Conclin: The area we are most concerned about is non-targeted effects – for example, leading to cancer. Also, editing in different cells will be different. An egg is edited during IVF

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