Gender Equality And Economic Development – Julian mutz on twitter: , What is gender equality? definition, examples, Economic development and gender equality a positive or negative relationship, The economy of wellbeing: going beyond gdp, Is gender equality *just* smart economics, or is there more to the story?, Gender equality and inclusive growth: economic policies to achieve sustainable development: united nations publications: 9781632141538: amazon.com: books
The first premise of this equality is to define gender equality. Is the connotation in socio-economic terms very broad, or is gender equality simply labor market parity?
Studies show that countries around the world could increase their respective GDP levels if more women were allowed to enter the labor market. However, this will require gender equality policy action of one kind or another. While the tools to be used may differ from country to country, there are some general aspects that will be discussed in the years to come.
Gender Equality And Economic Development
Gender equality is a multidimensional term that includes economic, cultural and social dimensions. I will always consider the debate on three main issues.
The Role Of Gender Equality In Ensuring Economic Growth
The right to education is the most basic. This right is a necessary condition for labor market equality, but in itself it is not sufficient. If women or men are discriminated against in terms of access to education, the human capital of our society will not be maintained.
The second issue is equal rights (and opportunities) to work. There are major inconsistencies in the levels of work engagement between women and men. This is largely due to the perception of the role of women in the relationship between domestic work and work. Traditionally, women were expected to do most of the housework themselves, regardless of who was best suited for the task. This archaic attitude still remains an important explanation for the disparity in women’s labor force participation.
The third aspect covers the nature of women’s work and wages. It is a common fact that women earn lower wages than men, which directly reflects the different conditions and environments in which women and men live. All of this applies to the unequal division of domestic work, to wage discrimination against women in the labor market.
From that point of view, if we limit our observations to only work-related factors, such as activity levels, and if we define gender equality as the absence of sex discrimination, the relationship between gender equality and economic growth – the rate of change in GDP – should be affected. rationally affirmative.
Pdf) Gender Equality And Economic Development
When there is gender equality in the labor market, jobs in society are rationally distributed among all genders, according to their abilities and skills. This means that a particular profession is assigned to the most suitable person and not because of biased or discriminatory rules or practices. This results in better economic outcomes than in the alternative case, as skills and abilities determine outcomes rather than historical socio-economic constraints and stereotypes.
At the global level, several strategies are needed to achieve the necessary and committed political action in this regard. This means that we must consider how gender imbalances in political institutions can affect the problem. The data collected shows that countries with higher levels of GDP have higher levels of women’s employment and more women in parliament than countries with lower levels of women’s economic involvement. The unequal distribution of power between women and men, evident in today’s world, does not promote long-term gender equality, without which sustainable economic development cannot be achieved. reductive and regressive. While he acknowledges that the gender economy contributes to a society where things like violence against women and human rights abuses are more prevalent, he criticizes it as rather “humanitarian” to reduce issues as important as gender inequality to literal dollars and cents.
It briefly explores a more feminist approach to development theory, and how this approach can be better positioned to make a real and impactful—and sustainable— impact on gender equality in development.
Despite the remarkable progress in the integration of gender equality issues into development in the last two decades, there remains a lack of attention to more comprehensive rights-based development in terms of gender equality:
Women’s Economic Empowerment
“The smart economy agenda is far from nuanced and sensitive ideas about what is really needed by women’s empowerment and the achievement of gender equality, which can be found in the gender and development literature” (Chant and Sweetman, 2012). .
(1970), development theory is almost exclusively male enterprise (Elson, 1999). Boserup argues that women have been marginalized in modernization and development processes, and that existing growth, development and policy practices threaten to have further negative impacts on women.
Different perspectives on the relationship between gender and development have influenced the research, policy-making and thinking of international bodies over the years, and have come up with a different set of assumptions that affect women’s participation in development.
In the early 1970s, women’s issues were important to development through positive synergies between investment in women and economic returns. The WID approach was introduced by American liberal feminists and is centered on equality, especially in terms of economic participation and access (Rathgeber, 1990). While this economic focus highlights the differences in employment opportunities between men and women—which prompt people and policymakers to take the necessary action—the focus is too little and does not address the social consequences of economic gender disparities, such as how they shape power relations. As such, it is considered a “non-confrontational approach” to gender equality in a development context, as it does not address the underlying social agents, attitudes, and divisions that place women at a disadvantage (Rathgeber, 1990, p. 491). ).
Relationship Of Gender Differences In Preferences To Economic Development And Gender Equality
Rathgeber (1990) explains that WID means accepting the existing social structure, focusing only on how to better integrate women into ongoing development initiatives, rather than adapting solutions for them. This criticism is supported by Mbilinyi (1984), who criticized WID for failing to challenge the source and nature of women’s subordination and oppression, thereby avoiding meaningful solutions.
This approach is particularly problematic because the allocation of development resources to women depends on economic efficiency, what women can contribute to the development process. She places the necessary emphasis on tangible results, valuing women’s productivity above their basic needs and rights. Thus, gender equality is a prerequisite for productivity (Miller and Razavi, 1995).
The WAD approach, although not often discussed in the development literature, is an important bridge between WID and subsequent (GAD). WAD is considered a “neo-Marxist feminist approach” that extends the “frontiers of modernization theory” that are fundamental to the WID approach (Rathgeber, 1990, p492). However, WAD, although perhaps more critical than WID, does not delve into systemic issues related to power relations between men and women.
The WAD school of thought argues that women’s position and power will increase with a more equitable international economic structure, supporting WID theory in approaching the problem from an economic perspective. However, as Chant and Sweetman (2012) say: “The actual experience of women in poor households and communities shows that a win-win scenario where poverty reduction, economic growth is guaranteed and gender equality is achieved is far from the truth.”
Pdf] Gender Equality, Economic Growth And Employment
One of the limitations of this approach is its tendency to view women as a uniform group, paying little attention to the intersectional differences (especially race, culture, and class) between women.
The Gender and Development (GAD) approach focuses on the social construction of gender roles and relations and how these can be challenged to enable equitable and sustainable development. The GAD approach diverges from WID and WAD. Rooted in socialist-feminist ideology, it explores “why women are systematically placed in inferior and/or secondary roles” and answers questions about power and agency (Rathgeber, 1990, p. 493).
The New Millennium sees a larger trend towards a women’s rights-based approach in the context of development, from “equal rights of women as economically effective” to “strengthening gender equality as social and political change” (Herrfahrdt-). Pahle and Rodenberg, 2012). In a moment of historical significance,
It focuses on gender equality as an independent priority value, a marked departure from the World Bank’s past practice.
Women, Business And The Law
Zuckerman (2007), Roberts and Soederberg (2012) argue that the World Bank’s focus on gender issues—though a welcome change—makes the “business case”; which ignores the moral imperative to empower women to achieve their human rights and full equality with men. Razavi (2011) believes that placing too much importance on women as economic capital leads to a dangerous and restrictive approach to social policy. In his view, when considering gender in a development context, there is an urgent need for gender and development policy makers, theorists and practitioners to prioritize health and well-being (this is particularly important in areas such as sexual reproductive rights and gender justice) as a primary focus. in the development of gender equality.
Due to these developments and criticisms, the theoretical foundation of gender and its practical/political implications for development today has a dual perspective: the first is based on the macroeconomic discourse of gender and efficiency created in the 1970s, the second focuses on women’s empowerment. through rigorous study of action-oriented growth and social gender relations
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