Economic Benefits Of Early Childhood Education

Economic Benefits Of Early Childhood Education – From preschool to prosperity: the economic payoff to early childhood education (we focus): timothy j. bartik, simon kalil borst: 9780880994828: books, Child care, Early childhood education associates degree online, Supporting families supports the economy: social nets are economic foundations, Early childhood education, Economic effects from preschool and childcare programs — penn wharton budget model

At the center of early childhood education research is a seemingly puzzling paradox. On the one hand, there are many studies that show that children who receive intensive education at ages 3 and 4 do not actually advance academically. By the time they reach kindergarten, many of their preferences have faded, and secondary researchers may not notice this at all.

On the other hand, there is an equally important body of research showing that early childhood education has profound, lifelong benefits. Children enrolled in intensive preschool programs are less likely to be arrested, graduate, and struggle with substance abuse as adults. One study found that when students turned 30, they were more likely to attend and graduate from college.

Economic Benefits Of Early Childhood Education

Economic Benefits Of Early Childhood Education

This is an area where research is hotly debated – and it’s really important. In 2017, the United States spent $9 billion on Head Start, a preschool education program that began in the 1970s. If one set of studies is wrong, it will have a profound effect on how we should spend that money instead.

The Heckman Curve

Here’s an explanation that makes sense of all the research: The benefits of early childhood education don’t come from the academic skills it teaches students. Early childhood education helps because it is reliable child care.

In the past few years, early childhood education has taken a hit in research on its effects years later. The Department of Health and Human Services commissioned a large-scale study of Head Start, the nation’s leading early childhood education program, and found that “the benefits of Head Start starting at age 4 are not 1st grade for the program’s general population.” .”

In the 2008-2009 school year, when Tennessee was forced to allocate space in its preschool program through a lottery, it created the perfect natural experiment. The researchers found negative effects: “Child management achieved and overall outperformed pre-k participants on [kindergarten and post-kindergarten] tests.

There are studies that have found consistent benefits for test scores. But in general, the better the research, the more disappointing the results.

Preschoolers Are The Key To Economic Growth

One common explanation in the early childhood education debate is that the research on one side or the other is simply wrong. Pessimists about educational interventions point to randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which are the gold standard for policy research like this, and the only recent studies that have found no effect of early childhood education interventions.

Meanwhile, long-term benefit results come from longitudinal studies that follow all children in the program. For a complex question like this, RCTs are often more reliable. So maybe RCTs are right, all longitudinal studies reveal noise and no effect of preschool.

However, defenders of early childhood education may counter that the evidence base for long-term effects is actually very strong. Some of the studies that have found long-term benefits in education have been very carefully designed to avoid the methodological problems of not having a control group.

Economic Benefits Of Early Childhood Education

For example, the Brookings Institution compared children who participated in Head Start with their non-participating siblings and found long-term effects on graduation rates, college attendance, and self-control and self-esteem in adulthood. They even found that Head Start improved parenting experiences for the next generation.

Economic Benefits Of Early Childhood Development Investments

Another analysis by the National Bureau of Economic Research used a regression intercept design—Head Start was given to the poorest neighborhoods, but not to nearly identical neighborhoods just above the income threshold. They found effects of Head Start on infant mortality, graduation rates, and college attendance.

Optimists then often argued that RCTs must be wrong—perhaps having lasting effects on what students learn, even if most studies don’t detect them. There are some studies where researchers have found lasting benefits from school-based early childhood programs. These often go beyond preschool and offer five to six years of quality intensive education. These few exceptional programs can actually produce academic results. However, they appear to be rare, small and difficult to measure.

There are several independent reasons to suspect that early gains in preschool education may not last. Kindergarten education is generally not a good predictor of performance at the end of primary school. Researchers Guanglei Hong and Bing Yu looked at data from a longitudinal study of children in kindergarten and found “no evidence that staying in elementary grades benefits students’ reading and math learning by the end of elementary school.”

Another is health interventions. Early childhood education programs have long-term, health-affecting outcomes, and it appears that educational interventions are often associated with health interventions. Designed as a preschool intervention, Head Start also provides nutrition, social services, parenting services, immunizations, and screenings for diabetes, anemia, and hearing and vision problems.

Addressing The Need For Affordable, High Quality Early Childhood Care And Education For All In The United States

It appears that many of the benefits of early childhood education may actually come from health interventions—a big problem because these parts of the program are much less expensive than the preschool parts.

However, this cannot be the whole story, as not every educational program that has shown any results has included health interventions. (And one study was also thoughtful enough to provide a health intervention to their control group and still found results.)

So if preschool is still having some effect, but it’s not because kids are learning skills they can keep in school, what’s the reason?

Economic Benefits Of Early Childhood Education

The study I mentioned—a study that provided both health interventions and a control group—suggests that. Called the Abeder Project, it was an experiment conducted in the 1970s and remains one of the most promising evidence for early childhood education.

Report: How Investing In Early Childhood Education Helps The Economy

The program provided intensive intervention from birth to age 5, costing $20,000 per child in current dollars. The project was a small sample compared to many other studies on this topic. (One hundred and twenty families, compared with nearly 5,000 in the most recent Head Start survey.) This included random variance, which should have reduced our results.

However, students in the intervention program were found to do remarkably better than the control group, including being four times more likely to graduate from college, five times less likely to receive public assistance, and significantly less likely to be arrested or charged with a crime. and math and reading skills improved significantly in adults.

The Abekedersky Project did something different from other early childhood education programs—it started at birth. Why it matters: For infants, we might expect the benefit of an educational intervention to be smaller than the effect of training.

They benefit from providing play, care and affection to babies and free childcare for parents. However, we can be sure that they will grow up to be healthy and happy people.

Early Childhood Education Yields Few Academic Benefits — But Still Has Lifelong Effects

If you look closely, it seems to be happening to three-year-olds too. Teaching them to read at age eight may not make them strong readers, but having a safe place to work full-time during the workday is a tremendous asset to their families.

Low-income parents are often under a lot of pressure because they don’t have access to kindergarten. Without childcare, it is much more difficult to do consistent work, as you often have to call in sick to cover gaps in informal childcare or to care for a sick child. Without childcare, it is much more difficult to get an education and get a high-paying job as an adult.

Leaving an abusive or unsafe home without childcare is much more difficult because it involves removing yourself and your children from your only source of childcare, usually a neighbor or relative. (Many children in programs like Head Start have homes with multiple risk factors, such as abuse, neglect, and substance abuse.)

Economic Benefits Of Early Childhood Education

Thus, the most important outcome of early childhood education may be that these programs allow parents to work full-time or pursue higher education, and places where parents can leave their children all day.

Better Jobs And Brighter Futures: Investing In Childcare To Build Human Capital

In other words, early childhood education can change children’s lives not by teaching them things that keep them in elementary school, but simply by providing them with a safe, predictable and consistent environment in which to play, and this gives parents stability. getting and keeping a good job.

There is substantial evidence that preschools are capable of doing just that. Washington, District of Columbia. made preschool free and universal a few years ago, the city saw huge benefits for low-income parents. In D.C., the labor force participation rate of women with young children has increased from about 65 percent to 76.4 percent over a decade. (Compare the 2 percentage point increase nationally over the same time period.) The effect

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