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2 What is Early Childhood Development (ECD)? ECD focuses on supporting the development of young children. ECD connects a young child’s cognitive, social, emotional, and physical processes with the care (family, community, and nation) needed to support their development. ECD is interdisciplinary. These include health, nutrition, education, social sciences, economics, child protection and social welfare, and social protection. EDC strives to ensure the overall well-being of young children in their early years, laying the groundwork for the development of healthy, socially and environmentally responsible, intellectually competent and economically successful adults. Early Childhood Care and Development Advisory Group. (2010)
3 The concept of early childhood up to the age of eight This period is in line with the developmental psychological understanding of children’s learning patterns. Involving 6-8 year olds will allow educators and planners to meet the needs of children for a proper transition from early care and education centers to primary school.
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4 Development The process of change in which a child acquires increasingly complex levels of movement, thinking, feeling, and interacting with people and objects in the environment. Physical, mental, social, emotional and spiritual growth is key to a child’s overall development. * Note that different governments and organizations may define different areas for development.
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5 Development Milestones Where we want babies and children to be at a certain age. There is only a small difference between cultures. Early detection of possible delays allows for early intervention, which increases the chances of skills recovery. .
6 Key DPE messages Exposure to biological and psychosocial risks affects brain development and impairs children’s development. Inequalities in children’s development begin in the prenatal and early years of life. With cumulative exposure to development risks, inequalities increase and trajectories are stronger.
7 Key Intellectual Property Messages (continued) Reducing inequalities requires integrated early interventions that address the many risks to which children are exposed in a given environment. The most effective and cost-effective time to prevent inequalities is the start of life before the trajectories are firmly established. Action or inaction has lifelong consequences for adult functioning, the care of the next generation, and the well-being of societies.
8 The most cited DPI fact “More than 200 million children under the age of 5 in low- and middle-income countries are not reaching their developmental potential …” 2007 DPI Series at The Lancet
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9 9 Risks of achieving developmental potential Poverty Nutritional deficiencies Growth retardation, iodine deficiency and iron deficiency anemia Inadequate learning opportunities Lack of cognitive stimulation
11 11 Risks and resilience Children who do not receive adequate nutrition, stimulation, education, environment, etc. are at greater risk for long-term development, BUT … Children are resilient and many are more likely to become prosperous and fertile. into an adult. .
12 12 Protective factors Many protective factors are the opposite of the risk factor. In high-income countries, there are a number of additional studies that identify protective factors. LMIC protective factors include: Breastfeeding Maternal education Early cognitive and socio-emotional stimulation
13 Conclusion on risks and protection factors “The higher the exposure to cumulative risks, the greater the inequality, suggesting that early interventions to prevent inequality are more effective than subsequent interventions to address cumulative deficits.” “There are likely to be risk factors that emphasize the importance of integrated interventions that involve reducing multiple risks simultaneously.” Inequality in early childhood: risk factors and protectors for early childhood development. 2011 Lancet Series, September 23, 2011
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15 gender differences in development? In general, there are only small differences between the developmental processes of boys and girls. For example, girls are more verbal than lifelong boys. They talk 1-2 months earlier than children, but children talk so much when they are 4 or 5 years old.
16 Variability and Overlap Although there are general differences in the skills of boys and girls, there is also a great deal of overlap. For example, many boys have better language skills than many girls, and many girls have better visual-spatial skills than many boys. Boys ’abilities are generally greater than those of girls in general. For example, children are more likely to be at the top and bottom of the skill distribution.
17 Guess A son and father have a car accident. Two ambulances arrive and take us to two different hospitals. When the child arrives at the hospital, they are operated on. The surgeon says, “Wait! I can’t have surgery! He’s my son!” How is it possible?
18 The role of culture Culture has a strong influence on the development of skills. For example, parents treat boys and girls differently at birth in every society. They have different expectations for boys and girls. In many cultures, girls are on a par with boys until the first year of school, but some girls fall behind after puberty.
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19 Perceptions matter Parents’ perceptions of their children’s behavior and emotions influence their behavior towards their children. This effect will also appear if parents are determined to treat their sons and daughters equally. 19 This is David / Jessica.
20 Lessons from Gender Labeling Studies Perceptions Not All Boys and girls learn the same and become men and women with the same math and science skills. There is strong evidence that mathematical and scientific reasoning has a biological basis that is shared by both men and women. Perceptions do not evoke a sense of masculinity or femininity in children. The biological differences between the sexes are real. 20 From the moment they are born, males and females are perceived differently, placing them at a disadvantage compared to females.
21 Discussion In small groups, say the following: What common adjectives or descriptive words are used to describe young people in your culture? Young girls? What do you think girls are doing well in your culture? Children? How do you see your culture treating girls and boys (5 years and younger) differently?
23 “Parents can be the most untapped resources in the lives of indigenous children. If we supported them in getting involved and staying in touch with their children, it would be a big protection factor for these young people as they grow up. ” Ed John, Great Leader of the First United Nations Summit, British Columbia, 2004
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24 Nature versus nutrition Parents are able to take care of a child early in life. There is nothing inherently or biologically different between men and women in terms of their ability to respond to the needs, nurture and love of children.
25 Interactions are usually different Parents often engage in more physically active, rough, shaky games, especially with their children. They can use more direct communication, such as commanding, say, disciplining and instructing. Mothers try to involve their child in more conversations, ask questions, shout, and reinforce the child’s speech or performance. When mothers engage their children, they tend to take on the role of “teachers,” while men tend to play the role of friends, playmates, and sometimes “coaches” when engaging their children. Both parents have important contributions. do it.
26 Direct Contribution Men from many cultures contribute to the well-being of their children by providing income to support family activities. However, men are not the only ones who contribute financially to the family. More and more women are paying significant and sometimes majority contributions to family income. o In Madras (India), women account for 46% of family income and men for 42%, with 12% of total income. o In Nepal, women provide 50% of family income; in the Philippines, women’s incomes are 10% higher than men’s, if domestic production is taken into account; And in Ghana, women make up 33% of households. (Bruce 1994)
27 Indirect contribution Men help prevent harm to children. o Children living in households where there are also men are much less likely to be abused or exploited by other men in the community than children living alone with women. Contribute to social value. o The mere fact that there is a parent who recognizes them and lives with them can add social value to children, especially in societies with very high paternal deficits. Relieves women’s stress. o Women living with a partner generally report being less stressed by childcare problems. Parental benefits can accumulate in children’s lives, especially in their early years, especially due to the couple’s supportive effect on maternal behavior. Guma and Henda, 2004; Clarke-Stewart, 1978; Richter, 2006.
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28 Influence of parents on children The presence of the father contributes to cognitive development, intellectual functioning, and school performance (Amato, 1998). o In South Africa, Mboya and Nesengani (1999) found that children living in the home of the current parent had higher academic performance than children living in the home of the absent parent. The presence of the father also contributes to emotional well-being / Children are less likely to have emotional and behavioral problems if their father is available to them, and the presence of the father shows a strong association with girls ’higher self-esteem (Hunt and Hunt, 1977).
29 Impact (continued) Parental availability is biased
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