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The present study examined the effectiveness of a revised competitive questioning technique, used in conjunction with the polygraph, to differentiate between ordinary travelers, drug traffickers, and terrorists in transit centers. Two experiments were conducted using a simulated crime scenario. In Experiment 1, we randomly assigned 78 participants to a drug condition, in which they loaded and lied about illegal drugs in their luggage, or a control condition, in which they did not load and did not. He lied about something illegal. In Experiment 2, we randomly assigned 164 participants to one of the two conditions in Experiment 1 or the additional bomb condition, where they packed and lied a bomb in their luggage. For both experiments, we evaluated participants’ RR interval, heart rate, galvanic skin response (GSR) peak-to-peak measurements, and all three combined, to determine the accuracy of participant classification in each condition. Using analysis. In both experiments, we found slower heart rate and GSR peak-to-peak amplitude in guilty participants when they lied in response to questions about their crime. We also found correct ratings by participants, both in Experiment 1 (drug vs. control: 84.2% vs. 82.5%) and in Experiment 2 (drug vs. control: 82:1% vs. 95.1%; bomb vs. control: 93.2% vs. 95.1 %; drug vs. bomb: 92.3% vs. 90.9%), above chance level. These findings indicate that the modified CQT, combined with the polygraph test, is a viable method for screening drug trafficking and terrorism suspects in transportation hubs such as train stations and airports.
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Millions of people travel around the world every day, whether for work, vacation, or for family and friends. Amid the massive movement from one place to another, transportation hubs such as airports and train stations have become prime arenas for criminal activities such as smuggling and terrorism. Therefore, there is a great need for transport authorities to accurately identify those people who carry illegal substances in their luggage. However, few studies have examined possible ways to assist transport authorities in detecting whether a passenger is carrying illegal items. To fill this gap, the current research investigated the effectiveness of using the polygraph along with a modified competitive questioning technique (CQT) to detect travelers lying about carrying illegal items in their luggage.
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Throughout history various methods have been used to detect lies. Studies have shown that deception is often associated with facial expressions (Su and Levine, 2016), neural activity (Hu X.S. et al., 2012; Farah et al., 2014; Bhutta et al., 2015; Hong and Santosa, 2016; Hong and Khan, 2017; Hong et al., 2017, 2018) and changes in the autonomic nervous system (ANS; Verschuere et al., 2004). The purpose of these fraud investigations is mostly to identify liars, thieves and criminals in order to protect and protect society. Thus, many researchers have designed experiments with “mock crimes” (Bin-Shakhar, 2002), simulating crimes that might occur in real life. Part of the “mock crime” involves playing out the situation so that the participant can experience the emotions and stress associated with the criminal act and when they later lie about the act. For example, researchers can give participants the opportunity to choose whether or not to steal a check written to a group with which they disagree politically (Tsiamyrtzis et al., 2007). Such an experimental design not only allows participants to “commit” but also elicits emotional reactions to the scenario itself as the action becomes something they care about (e.g., their opposition to a political group). make hard for). Thus, when “criminal” participants are questioned about the act, they are likely to react in an emotional and realistic manner, allowing researchers to observe the facial, neural, and autonomic reactions representative of real criminals. allows
Although extensive research has investigated lying in relation to crimes already committed (eg, theft), little research has investigated lying with the intent to commit a lie (eg, drug trafficking or terrorism). In particular, the security at the transportation centers is expected to successfully identify those who are involved in drug trafficking or terrorism when a criminal act has been committed. However, current research has yet to identify an effective method for detecting crime in such situations (Weinberger, 2010). Our current study aims to identify passengers carrying illegal items (eg, drugs or bombs) in a simulated airport security scenario.
To detect passengers carrying illegal items, we observed autonomous reactions during a mock security check, specifically analyzing the results obtained using a polygraph. The polygraph (Reid & Anbaugh, 1977) is a device that indirectly assesses psychological processes, such as lying, through the analysis of changes in SNA (Raskin, 1979, 1986; Lykken, 1998). To be precise, the polygraph uses physiological measures such as ElectroCardioGraphy (ECG) and Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) to determine pulse and skin conductance changes that correspond to deception. The polygraph was chosen as our lie detection device because facial expressions can be unreliable indicators of lies. It is well established that law enforcement agencies’ common use of nonverbal cues such as facial expressions has produced poor results in detecting deception (Vrij, 2004; Weinberger, 2010).
In the present study, the application of the polygraph is combined with a novel questionnaire example that we have constructed for the detection of passengers carrying illegal substances. Various question patterns are widely used with the polygraph for lie detection. Each paradigm consists of a set of questions asking suspects with the goal of eliciting optimal physiological responses that accurately represent crime-related psychological states. The relevant/irrelevant (R/I; Keeler, 1930) paradigm was one of the first to be developed, asking suspects relevant questions (i.e., those about the crime) and irrelevant questions (i.e., those about personal information). The Competitive Questioning Technique (CQT; Reed, 1947) builds on the R/I paradigm by adding a third type of questioning: moral character comparison questions (Synnott et al., 2015). The comparison questions were intended to help distinguish guilty suspects from innocent suspects whose physiological responses to related questions indicated high stress (Major & Vershier, 2015). This technique is widely used by law enforcement agencies (Reid, 1947; Raskin & Hunt, 2002; Major & Van Coppen, 2008). However, most researchers consider it to lack scientific basis (eg, Lykken, 1974; Ben-Shakhar, 2002; Iacono & Lykken, 2002; National Research Council, 2003). However, this technique is widely used and favored by many researchers around the world due to the fact that it is based on basic assumptions that support the techniques given by the laboratory scientists discussed below.
How To Pass A Lie Detector Test
In contrast to CQT, the hidden information technique (CIT; Verschuere et al., 2011 ), also known as the guilty knowledge technique (GKT; Lykken, 1959 ), is appreciated for its scientific basis. CIT is based on the orienting response (OR; Sokolov, 1963; Lynn, 1966), which includes changes in heart rate and skin conductance to a meaningful stimulus. Using relevant questions, the CIT observes the suspect with or presenting answers to questions, including correct answers. A guilty person will be expected to react strongly when presented with information that is relevant to the crime, whereas an innocent person will not change the reaction between the correct answer and the abnormal alternative (Lykken, 1974). Additionally, CIT administrators should be unaware of the details of the crime to ensure that they do not influence the results, increasing the validity of the paradigm (Meijer et al., 2016).
Despite the scientific validity of CIT, it is rarely used by law enforcement agencies worldwide; Japan is probably the only country that uses CIT during research (Yamamura & Miyata, 1990; Hira & Furumitsu, 2002; Nakayama, 2002; Osugi, 2011). The reason behind such limited application of CIT may be due to difficulties in formulating effective questions (Meijer & Verschuere, 2015). Furthermore, the validity of CIT depends on two assumptions: (1) offenders will recall the details of their crime in full, and (2) only the offender will know the details unique to the crime. This may not always be the case, as crimes of passion (ie those committed on impulse) and crimes committed by people with mental illness (eg schizophrenia) may not remember some details of the crime; In such cases, CIT does not produce an orientation response (Carmel et al., 2003; Gamer et al., 2010; Nahari and Ben-Shakher, 2011; Pith et al., 2012). In addition, it may be difficult to ensure that the details of the crime are known only to the perpetrator, since innocent witnesses may share the same information and so may many others if media coverage of an ongoing investigation reveals the same details. has revealed
Considering the advantages and disadvantages of both CQT and CIT, the current research developed a better model, which is called modified-comparative questioning technique (Modified-CQT). Modified-CQT combines the structure of traditional CQT with the scientific method of CIT. In particular, the modified CQT contains questions about basic personal information and common travel items to allow comparison of the physical states of the questioners when telling the truth and lying. Additionally, relevant crime questions are included for review
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