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Beyond the Numbers: Achieving Gender Equity in Education #DontIgnoreHer Posted by Catherine M. Jere | July 8, 2019 | PERMATA Report, Women’s Education 1
This blog is written by Catherine M. Jere, School of International Development, University of East Anglia, wrote on 5 July 2019 in response to the launch of the GEM Gender Report.
Education And Gender Equality
The latest in the Global Education Monitoring (GEM) gender report series France – UNESCO G7 International Conference kicked off on Friday, 5
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, applies a gender lens to the latest education statistics and key findings from the flagship 2019 GEM report on migration and displacement. The report shows that while there has been progress in addressing the challenges of gender inequality, more work needs to be done to ensure gender equality in education.
The report’s analysis shows that globally, gender parity – equal numbers of girls and boys – has been achieved in primary and secondary enrollment, progress that closes significant gender gaps in many countries. Only two in three countries have achieved gender parity in primary enrollment, one in two in lower secondary and one in four in upper secondary education. Overall, girls in low-income countries are less fortunate, while a quarter of countries – especially upper-middle-income countries – have fewer boys in upper secondary education, unchanged since 2000.
Many countries are still far from achieving gender parity in higher education, with gender gaps widening as education levels increase (Figure 1). In Ghana, for example, equal numbers of boys and girls enroll in primary education, while far fewer girls complete upper secondary school or enroll in higher education. In contrast, in Mongolia, while equal numbers of boys and girls enroll and complete primary education, boys are less likely to progress in their education. A number of ‘push and pull’ factors influencing these gender registration patterns are explored in this report.
Analysis of GEM Report 2019: Gender equality index between 0.97 and 1.03 indicates equality; Above 1.03 indicates weakness of boys, less than 0.97 indicates weakness of girls.
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For students up to the secondary level, technical and vocational programs are dominated by male students, while the opposite is true for higher education. Subject choice is also gender-split: more than a quarter of students enrolled in engineering, construction and manufacturing courses and IT programs are women.
Based on analysis of the 2019 GEM report, this review shows how gender, poverty and location combine to reduce educational opportunities, with girls and boys from poor households still facing significant barriers to achieving full education. Displacement and migration exacerbate these inequalities.
A central theme of the report is that more concerted efforts are needed to address discriminatory societal values and beliefs if gender equality in education is to be achieved. His analysis examines how such norms support inequality in families, schools, social institutions, and educational policies.
Gender norms that place little or no importance on the education of girls and women, and reinforce caring roles, restrict opportunities for them to participate equally in education. The report highlights the plight of child domestic workers, who are more than double the number of women in most countries. Research from Ethiopia, Indonesia and Peru shows that poor rural girls often migrate to cities because of poverty, are often unsupported, end up doing housework and see their educational opportunities compromised. The report also calls for more political commitment to ban child marriage and protect girls’ right to return to school after pregnancy. In sub-Saharan Africa, four countries – Equatorial Guinea, Sierra Leone, U.R. Tanzania and Togo – Enact a total ban on pregnant girls and young mothers in public schools.
The Pursuit Of Gender Equality: An Uphill Battle
The teaching profession itself is highly gendered. Too few men work in early childhood education, for example, at least in part because of persistent gender stereotypes and norms. Although most of the teaching staff are women, only a few hold leadership responsibilities. In Japan, where, overall, 39% of teachers are female, only 6% are head teachers. Many low-income countries struggle to keep female teachers where they are needed most, such as displacement and post-conflict settings. There is insufficient training in gender-sensitive teaching, which reinforces gender stereotypes in the classroom: influencing the life choices of girls and boys.
The 2019 Gender Report examines why many countries around the world have not achieved gender equality in the completion and completion of primary, secondary and post-secondary education and how much remains to be done to ensure wider gender equality in and through education. SDG goals 4A and 4.7 require students to acquire the knowledge and skills to not only make educational facilities gender sensitive, safe and non-violent, but to promote a sustainable development approach that includes gender equality. Therefore, there is a need to support education systems beyond the number of students in schools to include curriculum and textbook reform, comprehensive sexuality education, teacher education and institutional change as priority areas.
The results of the GEM report team’s survey of key factors in international development show that while girls’ education is a priority area for most donors and governments, more can be done to embed gender equality in education budgets and plans. On average, across OECD donor countries, 55% of direct aid to education was considered gender-targeted (including gender equality and/or women’s empowerment as program objectives) in 2017, ranging from just 6% in Japan to 92% in Canada. Spending largely reflects the preferences of donor countries. For example, the UK has invested in two phases of the ambitious Girls’ Education Challenge initiative, which now operates 27 projects in 15 countries. Two evaluations praised the focus on gender equality, but pointed to the need to address sustainability and strengthen links to learning outcomes.
Since developing the monitoring framework for gender equality first presented in the 2016 GEM Report, the GEM Report team has worked with UNGEI, the UCL Institute of Education and other organizations in the UK, Malawi and South Africa to develop a supporting indicator framework. Gender equality indicators for the SDGs, especially targets 4.7 and 4A. The ‘Accountability for Gender Equality in Education’ project is funded by the UK’s Department for International Development (DFID) and the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC). The monitoring framework considers gender equality in education in 6 areas: access and learning opportunities, gender norms and values, social institutions, laws and policies, education systems and outcomes (Figure 2).
Education And Gender Equality In Schools
While data remains sparse in some areas, the 2019 Gender Report represents an important effort to define what real and transformative progress in these areas looks like for gender equality in education.
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Gender Equality In Primary And Secondary Education
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Technical storage or access profiles are necessary to send advertisements to users, or to track users for similar marketing purposes across a website or multiple websites. Gender Equality in Primary and Secondary Education We are committed to ensuring gender equality in and through education for every girl and boy in South Asia.
The gender gap in education is a prevalent issue linked to socio-cultural trends prevalent in South Asia. At the primary level, 5.9 million girls are out of school compared to 5.5 million boys. The biggest factor keeping girls out of school is gender discrimination along with caste, caste, religious and caste divisions prevalent in the region. In addition, the special needs of girls require special measures such as sanitation and hygiene facilities.
Girls from the poorest families, most likely, will never set foot in a classroom. Eighty-one percent of out-of-school girls in the region are unlikely to start school, compared to 42 percent of out-of-school boys. For girls, school enrollment also reduces the likelihood of early marriage. Evidence shows that marriage before the age of 15 or 18 is associated with children’s level of education. The higher the level of education, the lower the child’s chance of early marriage. Currently, almost half (45 percent) of girls in South Asia are married before their 18th birthday.
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High dropout and non-enrollment rates among boys are on the rise in Bangladesh, Nepal and the Maldives, while serious challenges continue for girls to complete the full cycle of primary education in Afghanistan and Pakistan. At lower secondary level,
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